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常用的钢管无损检测方法

常规的无损检测方法有:射线检测、磁粉(或漏磁)检测、渗透检测、超声波检测、涡流检测。 
射线检测(RT)
应用最早的一种无损检测的方法,被广泛用于金属和非金属材料及制品的内部缺陷检验,至少有50多年的历史。其有无可比拟的独特优越性,即检验缺陷的正确性、可靠性和直观性,且得到的射线底片可用于缺陷的分析和作为质量凭证存档。但这种方法也存在着设备较复杂、成本较高的缺点,并应注意对射线的防护。 
The earliest a nondestructive testing method, is widely used in metal and non-metallic materials and products, the internal defect inspection of at least 50 years of history. Its unique has incomparable superiority, namely the correctness, reliability, and visual inspection defects, and the radiographic analysis can be used for defects and quality documents on file. But this method of equipment are complex and high cost exist shortcomings, and should pay attention to radiation protection.
 磁粉检测(MT)或漏磁检测(EMI)
其检测原理是基于铁磁性材料在磁场中被磁化后,材料或制品的不连续处(缺陷处)产生漏磁场,吸附磁铁粉(或用检测元件检测)而被显现(或在仪器上显示出来)。所以此法只能用于铁磁性材料或制品的表面或近表面缺陷检验。 
Detection principle is based on the ferromagnetic material in magnetic field after being magnetized, discontinuity of materials or products produce leakage magnetic field (defect), adsorption magnet powder (or use the detection element) and be displayed (or displayed on the instrument). So this method can only be used for ferromagnetic materials or products of surface or near surface defect inspection.
 渗透检测(PT)
包括荧光、着色两种。由于它设备简单,操作方便,是弥补磁粉检测不足的检验表面缺陷的有效方法。它主要用于非磁性材料的表面缺陷检验。 
荧光检验的原理是将被检制品浸入荧光液中,因毛细管现象,在缺陷内吸满了荧光液,除掉表面液体,由于光致效应,荧光液在紫外线的照射下发出可见光而显现缺陷。 
着色检验的原理与荧光检验的原理相似。都是不需要专门设备,只是用显像粉将吸附在缺陷内的着色液吸出零件表面而显现缺陷。 
Including fluorescence, color two kinds. Due to its simple equipment, easy operation, make up for a lack of magnetic particle detection is effective method of surface defect inspection. It is mainly used for surface defect inspection of nonmagnetic materials.
The principle of fluorescence test products into fluorescent liquid is to be found, because of the capillary phenomenon, full of fluorescence and liquid inside defects, get rid of liquid surface, the Yu Guangzhi effect, fluorescent liquid appeared under the irradiation of ultraviolet visible light signal defects.
Principle and fluorescent dye penetrant inspection of the inspection of the principle of which is similar. Is don't need special equipment, just using imaging powder sucked out adsorption colored liquid in the defect parts surface and defects.
超声波检测(UT)
这种方法是利用超声振动来发现材料或制件内部(或表面)缺陷的。根据超声振动的不同调制方法,可以划分为连续波和脉动波;根据不同的振动和传播方式又可分为纵波、横波、表面波和兰姆波4种形式在工件中传播;根据声波的发射和接受条件的不同,又可分为单探头和多探头法。 
The use of ultrasonic vibration to find materials or parts of internal defects (or surface). According to the different modulation method of ultrasonic vibration, can be divided into continuous wave and pulse wave; According to the different vibration and spread ways and can be divided into longitudinal wave, shear wave, surface wave and lamb wave 4 forms in artifacts; According to different acoustic transmission and reception of the conditions, the method can be divided into single probe and probe again.
涡流检测(ET) 
涡流检测的原理是交变的磁场在金属材料内产生相同频率的涡电流,用这种涡电流的大小与金属材料的比电阻间的关系变化来检测缺陷的。当金属材料表面有缺陷时(如裂纹),该处的比电阻便因缺陷的存在而增大,与其相关的涡电流便相应地减小,其微小变化的涡电流经放大后用仪表指示出来,便可显现缺陷的存在与大小。
The principle of eddy current testing is alternating magnetic field to produce the same frequency eddy current in the metal material, with the size of the eddy current and the relationship between the resistivity of metal materials change to detect defects. When metal materials surface flaws such as crack, its specific resistance will increase due to the existence of defects, with related eddy current is correspondingly reduced, its tiny changes after enlargement with the instrument out of eddy current, can show the existence of defects and size.
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